Synthetic Cannabinoids Drug Information
Synthetic Cannabinoids are chemicals that act as cannabinoid receptor agonists. Chemically they are not similar to cannabinoids but the term "Synthetic Cannabinoids" or "Cannabinomimetics" is widely used to refer to them as they're cannabinoid-like in their activity.
The synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists fall into seven major structural groups:
- Naphthoylindoles (e.g. JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, AM-2201)
- Alicyclic indoles (XLR-11, AKB-48)
- Indazole-L-valinamides (AB-PINACA, AB-FUBINACA)
- Indazole-L-tert-leucinamides (ADB-PINACA, ADB-FUBINACA)
- Phenylacetylindoles (JWH-250, RCS-4)
- Cyclohexylphenols (e.g. CP 47,497 and homologues of CP 47,497)
- Classical cannabinoids (e.g. HU-210)
Little is known about the detailed pharmacology and toxicology of the synthetic cannabinoids and few formal human studies have been published.
Synthetic Cannabinoids metabolize extensively in humans via oxidation and glucuronide conjugation. Following a single low dose, the hydroxylated synthetic cannabinoids and the carboxylated synthetic cannabinoids metabolites can be detected up to 72 hours in urine. In case of chronic use, the detection window could be much longer. Very little parent drug excreted in human urine for most non-polar substances like JWH-018.
Presence of parent drug in saliva confirms ingestion; average detection window up to 24-48 hours.
There is considerable inter-and intra-batch variability in smoking mixtures, both in terms of substances present and their quantity. Thus, there is a higher potential for overdose than with cannabis.
Initially, JWH-018 and JWH-073 were the two most common synthetic cannabinoid chemicals found in a variety of herbal smoking blends. Others like AKB-48, XLR-11, AB-PINACA, 5F-ADB, and AB-FUBINACA have started appearing in newer synthetic cannabinoid products and preparations. Reportedly offering a high 4 times stronger than marijuana, these compounds are commonly associated with herbal smoke and incense products sold under names such as K2, K3 Legal, Spice, Syn, Haze, Cloud Nine, Serenity and many others.
Synthetic cannabinoid chemicals are often laced in the herbal smoking products that are readily available via the Internet and in many head- shops around the country.
Users looking for a high often turn to these herbal smoking or incense products because they do not show up on a standard urine drug test. Users smoke the product by rolling joints, smoking it in pipes, or inhaling fumes via vaporizers. Users also report that herbal blends or pure chemical concoctions can be ingested with an infusion or solvent process; purportedly allowing them to manage the potency and dose of the active ingredient(s).
Users indicate the high comes on slow at first, then with surprising potency. There have been many reports about the adverse effects including agitation, rapid heart rate, confusion, dizziness and nausea.
Long-term effects from these research chemicals are unknown.
In July 2012, the DEA banned synthetic cannabinoids based on their structural classification, explicitly naming 15 chemicals, citing numerous calls to poison control centers around the nation. Routinely, the DEA bans newer compounds after they have caused multiple overdoses. However, newer generation compounds continually emerge—making it more vital than ever to target synthetic marijuana.
Methods of Analysis
Immunoassay screens are now available for some synthetic cannabinoids. RTL's test utilizes the highly sensitive and specific technique, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to confirm presumptive positive specimens for synthetic cannabinoid metabolites in urine. The method relies on monitoring multiple metabolites for each drug. RTL's test methodology provides the most definitive synthetic cannabinoid biomarker test results.
For oral fluid testing, LC/MS/MS is utilized to confirm parent synthetic cannabinoid drugs.
Drug information data is not definitive and should be used for reference guidelines only.